The world’s population is projected to exceed 9.1 billion by 2050. To feed the growing world’s population, further increases in productivity are essential. As a result, agriculture is one of the largest sectors of the economy of any country.

If current trends continue, by 2050, according to forecasts, world consumption of nitrogen will increase compared to today by 2.7 times, and phosphorus by 2.4 times. Increasing fertilizer use increases environmental stress.

According to studies, only 50% of fertilizers get to cultivated crops. The remaining 50% is involved in chemical processes in the soil or gets into the air and water.

Mineral fertilizers are inorganic compounds that contain nutrients necessary for plants. The substances that make up mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) are easily consumed by plants. This results in a significant increase in yield. On the other hand, the accelerated maturation of products due to mineral fertilizers leads to a decrease in the quality and deterioration of the taste of these products. At the same time, in soil with an excess content of fertilizers, degradation of the soil layer is observed.

Environmental pollution by agrochemical means, i.e. using mineral fertilizers, it has a multilateral negative impact on almost all parts of the biosphere, including water bodies, soil cover and the atmosphere. Along with this, mineral fertilizers are fraught with danger to human health. Thus, high doses of nitrogen fertilizers contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in plants. When eating plant foods containing a large amount of nitrates, a person can harm his body, because. nitrates under the influence of intestinal microflora are converted into toxic nitrites. This can lead to acute gastrointestinal disorders, poisoning, and chronic diseases. Also, in case of poisoning with these substances, the central nervous system suffers, the heart rate and respiration, the content of lactic acid, cholesterol, and leukocytes in the blood increase. Nitrites are able to interact with amines and amino acids, as a result of which they turn into nitrosamines, which cause cancer. An excess of fluorine causes such a chronic disease as fluorosis. It is expressed in a change in the tissues of the teeth and other bone formations. For example, in humans, at high doses (more than 2 mg/l), tooth enamel is destroyed, and at very high doses (8 mg/l), osteosclerosis of the skeleton occurs.

Mineral fertilizers also contain many harmful impurities (strontium, uranium, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium). In the human body, they have a negative impact on organs such as the kidneys, liver, intestines, as well as on the circulatory system. So, for example, nitrates, in the human body, are converted to nitrites. Hemoglobin, under the influence of nitrites, turns into methemoglobin, which is not able to provide the body with oxygen. Excessive nitrite content provokes the development of malignant tumors, disrupts the immune system and increases the risk of embryo mutations.

Thus, mineral fertilizers, especially if they are used incorrectly, in excess, harm the ecological state of the environment and human health.